Specialized Sensors are devices that are designed to use in specific applications to sense physical phenomena and report that data to a circuit of the processor system. They are used in application specific control systems to measure a current state and may be part of a control loop – acting as a feedback element in an electromechanical system.
Sensors come in a large variety of types. Capacitive Sensors detect changes to a capacitive feed and can be used for computer touch screens and proximity sensing. Special Air Quality Sensors based upon micro-electro-mechanical (MEM) s devices are used in the detection of gasses like CO2. These are utilized in smart home, internet of things applications and safety monitoring devices. Infrared Sensors are available for Medical and Instrumentation applications. They can also be used to determine the reflectivity of an adjacent surface.
Other specialized areas that sensors are used include Automotive Sensors. An example of this is pressure sensors. These are single chips that usually have a hole in the top which must be exposed to the environment being evaluated. They are used as tire pressure indicators, but can also be found in process control systems and even in applications that require altitude sensors.
Turbidity and Temperature Controller is an interesting type of sensor. They are used in applications where a number of suspended particles in a fluid is important, along with the temperature. These are typically a combination of an optical sensor and a temperature sensor and are found in washing machines and dishwashers.
Most devices interface to the circuit or processing system by serial connection like SPI or I2C. Some devices output a frequency of pulses or an analog signal to indicate the measurement. Reluctance Sensors are an example of a sensor that detects a changing electromagnetic field and outputs a digital square wave or pulse based upon the speed of change.
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